Mesothelioma is an aggressive kind of cancer that is most often deadly and has a negative prognosis when diagnosed. It begins in the mesothelium tissue, in most cases in the tissue that lines the lungs and chest cavity. Most cases of this kind of mesothelioma are caused by exposure to asbestos and are very difficult to treat. New advances in nanotechnology may give new hope to patients receiving a mesothelioma diagnosis. Tiny images are being used to diagnose the illness earlier, while nanoparticles are showing great promise in being able to target the delivery of effective drugs to tumors. On the other side of nanotechnology developments, some of these particles may actually be harmful and contribute to the development of mesothelioma.